English: Writing

Woodhouse Writing progression of skills

Co-ordination and subordination

Children are introduced to the words ‘and’ and ‘because’ through oral discussions

 

Children begin to use capital letters and full stops to punctuate single sentences where they are introduced tot ‘high five’ sentences (this is built upon in Year 1 where they will do this in paragraph and stories)

Joining words and joining clauses using and

 

 

Subordination (using when, if, that, because) and

co- ordination (using

or, and, but)

compound verb

 

 

Expressing time, place and cause using a conjunction (for example, when, before, after, while, so, because)

 

extending the range of sentences with more than one clause by using a wider range of conjunctions, including when, if, because, although

 

conjunction clause

subordinate clause

 

 

Use of commas after fronted adverbials (where these are fronted adverbial clauses)

Use of commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity

ambiguity

 

Brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis

Parenthesis

bracket

dash

 

Use of the semi- colon, colon and dash to mark the boundary between independent clauses (for example, It’s raining; I’m fed up)

semi-colon

colon

 

 

Sentence types

YR

Y1

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y5

Y6

Children begin to use capital letters and full stops to punctuate single sentences where they are introduced tot ‘high five’ sentences (this is built upon in Year 1 where they will do this in paragraph and stories)

Introduction to capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks to demarcate sentences

 

Capital letters for names and for the personal pronoun

letter

capital letter punctuation

full stop

question mark exclamation mark

How the grammatical patterns in a sentence indicate its function as a statement, question, exclamation or command

 

Use of capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation

marks to demarcate sentences

statement question exclamation command

Introduction to inverted commas to punctuate direct speech

 

 

direct speech inverted commas (or speech marks)

Use of inverted commas and other punctuation to indicate direct speech (for

example, a comma after the reporting clause; end punctuation within inverted commas: The conductor shouted, ‘Sit down!’)

Consolidate

The

difference between structures typical of

informal speech and structures appropriate for formal speech and writing (for example, the use of question tags: He’s your friend, isn’t he?)

 

Nouns and noun phrases

Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6

 

Part of the spelling progression

Regular plural noun suffixes -s or -es

(for example, dog, dogs; wish, wishes), including the effects of these suffixes on the meaning of the noun

singular

plural

 

How the prefix

un- changes the meaning of verbs and adjectives (negation, for example, unkind, or undoing: untie the boat)

Expanded noun phrases for description and specification (for example, the blue butterfly, plain flour, the man in the moon)

noun

noun phrase compound

adjective

suffix

 

 

 

Part of the spelling progression

Formation of nouns using suffixes such as -ness, -er and  by compounding (for example, whiteboard, superman)

 

Formation of adjectives using suffixes such as -ful,

-less.

part of spelling progression)

 

Use of the suffixes

-er, -est in adjectives

Use of the forms a or an according to whether the next word begins with

a consonant or a vowel (for example, a rock, an open box)

prefix

consonant

vowel

 

 

Part of the spelling progression

Formation of nouns using a range of prefixes (for example super-, anti-, auto-)

 

Word families based on common words, showing how words are related in form and meaning (for example, solve, solution, solver, dissolve, insoluble)

word family

The grammatical difference between plural and possessive-s

 

 

Noun phrases expanded by the addition of

modifying adjectives, nouns and prepositional phrases (for example, the teacher expanded to the strict Maths teacher with curly hair).

 

determiner pronoun

possessive pronoun

 

Choosing nouns or pronouns appropriately for clarity and cohesion and to avoid repetition

 

pronoun

possessive pronoun

Relative clauses

beginning with who, which, where, when, whose, that, or an omitted relative pronoun

 

relative pronoun

 

relative clause

 

cohesion

 

Using expanded noun phrases to convey complicated information concisely

How hyphens can be used to avoid ambiguity (for example, man eating shark versus man-eating shark, or recover versus re-cover)

hyphen

 

How words are related by meaning as synonyms and antonyms (for example, big, large, little)

antonym

synonym

 

Continuing to use expanded noun phrases to convey complicated information concisely

 

subject

object

 

Adverbials

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y5

Y6

Part of spelling progression:

Use of -ly in Standard English to turn adjectives into adverbs

adverb

 

Expressing time, place and cause using adverbs (for example, then, next, soon, therefore),

or prepositions (for example, before, after, during, in, because of)

preposition

Fronted adverbials (for example, Later that day, I heard the bad news.)

adverbial

 

 

Use of commas after

fronted adverbials

Indicating degrees of possibility using adverbs (for example, perhaps, surely)

 

 

Devices to build cohesion within a paragraph (for

example, then, after that, this, firstly)

cohesion

 

Linking ideas across paragraphs using adverbials of time (for example, later), place (for example, nearby) and number (for example, secondly)

 

 

Linking ideas across paragraphs using

a wider range of cohesive devices

 

Grammatical connections (for example, the use of adverbials such as on the other hand, in contrast, or as a consequence)

 

 

Verbs

YR

Y1

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y5

Y6

ELG Speaking:

 

They use past, present and future forms accurately when talking about events that have happened or are to happen in the future

 

Part of spelling progression:

Suffixes that can be added to verbs where no change is needed in the spelling of root words (e.g. helping, helped, helper)

 

How the prefix

un- changes the meaning of verbs and adjectives (negation, for example, unkind, or undoing:

untie the boat)

Correct choice and consistent use of present tense and past tense throughout writing

 

Use of the progressive form of verbs in the present and past tense to mark actions in progress (for example, she is drumming, he was shouting)

verb

tense

past tense present tense

 

Challenge vocab:

present progressive past progressive

 

 

 

Use of the present perfect form of verbs instead of the simple past (for example, He has gone out to play contrasted

with He went out to play)

Challenge vocab:

present perfect

 

 

Standard English forms for verb inflections, instead of local spoken forms (for example, we were instead

of we was, or I did instead of I done)

Indicating degrees of possibility using modal verbs (for example, might, should, will, must)

modal verb

 

Linking ideas across paragraphs using tense choices (for example, he had seen her before)

cohesion

 

Using the perfect form of verbs to mark relationships of time and cause

 

Part of spelling progression:

Converting nouns or adjectives into verbs using suffixes (for example, -ate; -ise;

-ify)

 

Verb prefixes (for example, dis-, de-, mis-, over- and re-)

 

 

.

Use of the passive to affect the presentation of information in a sentence (for example, I broke the window in the greenhouse versus The window in the greenhouse was broken (by me)

active

passive subjunctive

 

The difference between vocabulary typical of informal speech and vocabulary appropriate for formal speech and writing (for example, find out discover; ask for – request;

go in – enter)

 

Recognise and use vocabulary and structures that are appropriate for formal speech and writing, including the subjunctive forms

 

Cohesion

YR

Y1

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y5

Y6

ELG writing:

They write sentences which can be read by themselves and others.

 

ELG Speaking:

Children express themselves effectively, showing awareness of listeners’ needs.

 

ELG Speaking:

They develop their own narratives and explanations by connecting ideas or events.

 

 

Learning how to sequence a sentence to form short narratives.

Correct choice and consistent use of present tense and past tense throughout writing

(Link with teaching of verbs.)

Past tense

Present tense

Headings and sub- headings to aid presentation.

 

Introduction to paragraphs as a way to group

related material

 

Appropriate choice of pronoun or noun within and across sentences to aid cohesion and avoid repetition

(Link with teaching of noun/noun phrases.)

pronoun

possessive pronoun

 

Use of paragraphs to organise ideas around a theme

Devices to build cohesion within a paragraph (for

example, then, after that, this, firstly)

(Link with teaching of adverbials.)

 

 

Linking ideas across paragraphs using adverbials of time (for example, later), place (for example, nearby) and number (for

example, secondly) or tense choices (for example, he had seen her before). (Link with teaching of adverbials

and verbs.)

 

Using the perfect form of verbs to mark relationships of time and cause

 

 

 

 

How words are related by meaning as synonyms and antonyms (for example, big, large, little)

(Link with teaching of noun/noun phrases.)

synonym antonym

 

Linking ideas across paragraphs using

a wider range of cohesive devices: repetition of a word or phrase, grammatical connections (for

example, the use of adverbials such as on the other hand, in contrast, or as a consequence) and ellipsis

 

Layout devices (for example, headings, sub-headings, columns, bullets, or tables, to structure text)

 

cohesion

 

 Sentence demarcation & Commas

 

YR

Y1

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y5

Y6

Sentence demarcation

 

ELG writing:

They write sentences which can be read by themselves and others

 

Children begin to use capital letters and full stops to punctuate single sentences where they are introduced tot ‘high five’ sentences (this is built upon in Year 1 where they will do this in paragraph and stories)

How words can combine to make sentences

 

Leaving spaces between words

 

Using a capital letter for names of people, places, the days of the week and the personal pronoun ‘I’ (Link with teaching of sentence types.)

word

sentence

letter  capital letter punctuation

full stop

 

Introduction to capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks to demarcate sentences

question mark exclamation mark

Use of capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation

marks to demarcate

sentences

(Link with teaching of sentence types.)

Continue encouraging demarcation of sentences accurately

throughout, using capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks

Punctuating simple, compound and complex sentences accurately

 

Commas

 

 

Commas to separate items in a list

(Link with teaching of noun/noun phrases.)

comma

 

Continue teaching of using commas to separate items in a list and extend this to work on lists of adverbials

Use of commas after fronted adverbials. (Link with teaching of adverbials)

 

Continue teaching of using commas to separate items in a list and extend this to work on lists of adverbials

Brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis

 

Use of commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity

 

parenthesis bracket

dash ambiguity

 

 

Continue teaching of using commas to separate items in a list and extend this to work on lists of adverbials and clauses

 

 

 

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y5

Y6

Apostrophes for contraction

Apostrophes to mark where letters are missing in spelling

apostrophe

Consolidate use of apostrophes for contraction

Consolidate use of apostrophes for

contractions (this will link well with work on modal verbs, especially when writing dialogue). Opportunities linked to work on question tags

 

Apostrophes for possession

Apostrophes to mark singular possession in nouns (for example, the girl’s name). (Link with teaching of noun/noun phrases)

apostrophe

Consolidate use of apostrophes to mark singular possession in nouns (for example, the girl’s name)

Apostrophes to mark singular and plural possession (for example, the girl’s name, the girls’ names)

(Link with teaching of noun/noun phrases.)

Consolidate use of apostrophes for possession

Consolidate use of apostrophes for possession

 

Speech

 

Introduction to inverted commas to punctuate direct speech

 

direct speech speech mark

or inverted commas

Use of inverted commas and other punctuation to indicate direct speech (for

example, a comma after the reporting clause; end punctuation within inverted commas: The conductor shouted

, ‘Sit down!’) (Link with teaching of sentence types.)

 

 

Consolidate using speech punctuation and layout correctly

Consolidate using speech punctuation and layout correctly

 

 

Y5

Y6

 

Other punctuation

Using further organisational and presentational devices to structure text and to guide the reader [for example, headings, bullet points, underlining

 

 

Layout devices (for example, headings, sub-headings, columns, bullets or tables, to structure text)

(To be taught through teaching and learning sequences)

bullet point

 

Use of the semi-colon, colon and dash to mark the boundary between independent

clauses (for example, It’s raining; I’m fed up)

(Link with teaching of co-ordination and subordination.)

Semi-colon

colon

 

Use of the colon to introduce a list and use of semi-colons within lists

(To be taught through teaching and learning sequences.)

semi-colon

 

Punctuation of bullet points to list information

(To be taught through teaching and learning sequences.)

bullet point

 

How hyphens can be used to avoid ambiguity (for example, man eating shark versus

man-eating shark, or recover versus re-cover)

(Link with teaching of noun/noun phrases.)

Hyphen

 

Using further organisational and presentational devices to structure text and to guide the reader [for example, headings, bullet points, underlining

 

 

 

 

YR

Y1

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y5

Y6

Handwriting

ELG Physical development -  Handling:

Children show good control and co-ordination in large and small movements. They handle equipment and tools effectively, including pencils for writing

 

Sit correctly at a table, holding a pencil comfortably and correctly

 

Begin to form lower-case letters in the correct direction, starting and finishing in the right place

 

Form capital letters

 

Form digits 0-9

 

Understand which letters belong to which handwriting ‘families’ (i.e. letters that are formed in similar ways) and to practise these.

 

Form lower-case letters of the correct size relative to one another

 

Start using some of the diagonal and horizontal strokes needed to join letters and understand which letters, when adjacent to one another, are best left unjoined

 

Write capital letters and digits of the correct size, orientation and relationship to one another and to lower case letters

 

Use spacing between words that reflects the size of the letters

 

Use the diagonal and horizontal strokes that are needed to join letters and understand which letters, when adjacent to one another, are best left unjoined

 

Increase the legibility, consistency and quality of their handwriting [for example, by ensuring that the downstrokes of letters are parallel and equidistant; that lines of writing are spaced sufficiently so that the ascenders and descenders of letters do not touch]

 

Write legibly, fluently and with increasing speed

 

Choosing which shape of a letter to use when given choices and deciding whether or not to join specific letters

 

Choosing the writing implement that is best suited for a task.

 

 

 

Y1

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y5

Y6

Composition - plan

With the support of the teacher , encouraging children to say their sentence and count how many words are in their sentence before writing

Saying out loud what they are going to write about

 

Composing a sentence orally before writing it

 

Consider what they are going to write before beginning by:

planning or saying out loud what they are going to write about

 

Encapsulating what they want to say, sentence by sentence

 

Discussing writing similar to that which they are planning to write in order to understand and learn from its structure, vocabulary and grammar

 

Discussing and recording ideas

 

Identifying the audience for and purpose of the writing, selecting the appropriate form and using other similar writing as models for their own

 

Noting and developing initial ideas, drawing on reading and research where necessary

 

In writing narratives, considering how authors have developed characters and settings in what pupils have read, listened to or seen performed

 

 

 

YR

Y1

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y5

Y6

Composition – draft and write

ELG speaking:

They develop their own narratives and explanations by connecting ideas or events.

 

ELG writing:

They write sentences which can be read by themselves and others.

 

 

 

Sequencing sentences to form short narratives

 

Writing narratives about personal experiences and those of others (real and fictional)

 

Writing about real events

 

Writing poetry

 

Writing for different purposes

 

Writing down ideas and/or key words, including new vocabulary

 

Composing and rehearsing sentences orally (including dialogue), progressively building a varied and rich vocabulary and an increasing range of sentence structures (English Appendix 2)

 

Organising paragraphs around a theme

 

In narratives, creating settings, characters and plot

 

In non-narrative material, using simple organisational devices [for example, headings and sub-headings]

 

Selecting appropriate grammar and vocabulary, understanding how such choices can change and enhance meaning

in narratives, describing settings, characters and atmosphere and integrating dialogue to convey character and advance the action

 

Using further organisational and presentational devices to structure text and to guide the reader [for example, headings, bullet points, underlining

 

Linking ideas across paragraphs using adverbials of time [for example, later], place [for example, nearby] and number [for example, secondly] or tense choices [for example, he had seen her before]

 

Using a wide range of devices to build cohesion within and across paragraphs

 

Devices to build cohesion within a paragraph [for example, then, after that, this, firstly]

 

 

 

Selecting appropriate grammar and vocabulary, understanding how such choices can change and enhance meaning

in narratives, describing settings, characters and atmosphere and integrating dialogue to convey character and advance the action

 

Using further organisational and presentational devices to structure text and to guide the reader [for example, headings, bullet points, underlining]

 

Linking ideas across paragraphs using a wider range of cohesive devices: repetition of a word or phrase, grammatical connections [for example, the use of adverbials such as on the other hand, in contrast, or as a consequence], and ellipsis

 

Précising longer passages

using a wide range of devices to build cohesion within and across paragraphs

 

 

 

 

YR

Y1

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y5

Y6

 

Composition – evaluate/edit

Encouraging children to read their sentence back to an adult to check they have written a high five sentence (capital letter, full stop, lovely letters, finger spaces, makes sense)

 

Children beginning to use sound mats and high 5 picture symbols to self-check work

 

Re-reading what they have written to check that it makes sense

 

Discuss what they have written with the teacher or other pupils

 

Read aloud their writing clearly enough to be heard by their peers and the teacher

 

Evaluating their writing with the teacher and other pupils

 

Re-reading to check that their writing makes sense and that verbs to indicate time are used correctly and consistently, including verbs in the continuous form

 

Proof-reading to check for errors in spelling, grammar and punctuation [for example, ends of sentences punctuated correctly]

 

Read aloud what they have written with appropriate intonation to make the meaning clear

 

Assessing the effectiveness of their own and others’ writing and suggesting improvements

proposing changes to grammar and vocabulary to improve consistency, including the accurate use of pronouns in sentences

 

Proof-read for spelling and punctuation errors

 

Read aloud their own writing, to a group or the whole class, using appropriate intonation and controlling the tone and volume so that the meaning is clear

 

Assessing the effectiveness of their own and others’ writing

 

Proposing changes to vocabulary, grammar and punctuation to enhance effects and clarify meaning

 

Ensuring the consistent and correct use of tense throughout a piece of writing

ensuring correct subject and verb agreement when using singular and plural, distinguishing between the language of speech and writing and choosing the appropriate register

 

Proof-read for spelling and punctuation errors

 

Perform their own compositions, using appropriate intonation, volume, and movement so that meaning is clear

 


 

YR Writing Overview Y1 Writing Overview Y2 Writing Overview Y3 Writing Overview Y4 Writing Overview Y5 Writing Overview Y6 Writing Overview